• Vice Provost for Advances in Learning; Charles H Carswell Professor of East Asian Languages and Civilizations
  • pkbol@fas.harvard.edu
  • http://ealc.fas.harvard.edu/people/peter-k-bol
  • 2 Divinity Avenue | Cambridge MA, 02138

Research interests: history of China’s cultural elites from the Tang, Song, Yuan, and Ming dynasties; geospatial analysis in teaching and research; China Biographical Database project; Center for Geographic Analysis; China Historical Geographic Information Systems project

As Vice Provost, Peter K. Bol is responsible for HarvardX, the Harvard Initiative in Learning and Teaching, and research on the science of learning. Together with William Kirby, Bol teaches ChinaX (SW12x), a Harvard course that has a global enrollment of over 45,000. His research is centered on the history of China’s cultural elites at the national and local levels from the 7th to the 17th century. He is the author of "This Culture of Ours": Intellectual Transitions in T'ang and Sung China, Neo-Confucianism in History, coauthor of Sung Dynasty Uses of the I-ching (Princeton, 1990), co-editor of Ways with Words (California, 2000), and various journal articles in Chinese, Japanese, and English. He led Harvard’s university-wide effort to establish support for geospatial analysis in teaching and research; in 2005 he was named the first director of the Center for Geographic Analysis. Bol also directs the China Historical Geographic Information Systems (GIS) project, a collaboration between Harvard and Fudan University in Shanghai in the creation of a GIS for 2000 years of Chinese history. Professor Bol directs an additional Harvard collaboration, the China Biographical Database project, with Academia Sinica, and Peking University. This online relational database currently contains some 350,000 historical figures and is being expanded to include all biographical data in China's historical record over the last 2,000 years. Bol received his Ph.D. in Chinese history from Princeton in 1980.

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研究兴趣:唐、宋、元、明代的中国文化精英历史,地理空间分析在教学与研究中的应用,中国历代人物传记资料,哈佛地理分析中心,中国历史地理信息系统(CHGIS)项目

In Press

Peter K. Bol (General Editor). China Biographical Database 中國歷代傳記資料庫. In Press.

Bol PK, Ge Jianxiong 葛剑雄. China historical GIS [electronic resource] = Zhongguo li shi di li xin xi xi tongChina historical GIS [electronic resource] = 中国历史地理信息系统. [Internet]. In Press :1 CD-ROM. Publisher's Version

Bol PK. The Humanities and the Digital Humanities in Higher Education. Journal of Digital Archives and Digital Humanities. Forthcoming.

2017

Bol PK. Review of Dingxin Zhao: The Confucian-Legalist State: A New Theory of Chinese History. American Historical Review [Internet]. 2017;122 (2) :499-500.

Turchin P, Bol PK, et al. Quantitative Historical Analyses Uncover a Single Dimension of Complexity that Structures Global Variation in Human Social Organization. PNAS [Internet]. 2017.

Bol PK. Why do intellectuals matter to Chinese politics?. In: The China questions: critical insights into a rising power. Cambridge: Harvard University Press ; 2017.

Bol PK. 包弼德. 探寻地图中的主张: 以1136年的<禹迹圖> (Exploring the Propositions in Maps: The Case of the Traces of Yu Map of 1136). 历史地理 (Historical Geography). 2017;(34) :253-262.

2016
Deng K, Bol PK, Li KJ, Liu J. On the unsupervised analysis of domain-specific Chinese texts. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences [Internet]. 2016.

Bol PK. The Historical Atlas in a Digital Age. Conference on the Making of Historical Atlas. 2016 :13-28.

Bol PK. Preface. In: Placing Names: Enriching and Integrating Gazetteers. Indiana University Press ; 2016.

Hongsu W, Hang TL, Bol PK. A Cyberinfrastructure for Historical China Studies. 7th International Congress of Digital Archives and Digital Humanities. 2016.
Bol PK. Mapping China’s History. Verge. 2016;2 (2) :70-82.

2015

Bol PK. Reconceptualizing the Order of Things in Northern and Southern Sung. In: Cambridge History of China. Vol. 5.2. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press ; 2015.

2014

Bol PK. Reconceptualizing the Order of Things in Northern and Southern Song China. https://facultimedia.com/downloads/history-reconceptualizing-the-order-of-things-in-northern-and-southern-sung-peter-bol/ [Internet]. 2014. Publisher's Version

Bol PK. 王安石與《周禮》. 歷史文獻研究. 2014;33 :65-78.

Bol PK. Review of BENJAMIN A. ELMAN. Civil Examinations and Meritocracy in Late Imperial China. . The American Historical Review [Internet]. 2014;119 (5) :1670-1671.

2013

Bol PK. On Shao Yong's Method for Observing Things. Monumenta Serica . 2013;61 :287-299.

Bol PK. On the Cyberinfrastructure for GIS-Enabled Historiography. Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 2013;103 (5) :1087-1092.

Bol PK. What is a Geographic Perspective on China’s History?. In: Chinese History in Geographical Perspective. Lantham: Lexington Books ; 2013. pp. 197-204.
2012

Bol PK. Wealth, Power and a Confucius for Today. [Internet]. 2012.

包弼德 PBK. 宋明理学与地方社会:一个12至16世纪间的个案. In: 当代西方汉学研究集萃:思想文化史卷 . Shanghai: 上海古籍出版社 ; 2012. pp. 39-88.

Bol PK. Review of Ancestral Leaves: A Family Journey through Chinese History. By Joseph W. Esherick . Journal of Interdisciplinary History. 2012;707-710.

Bol PK. The intellectual persuasion in the twenty-first century: a conversation with Peter K. Bol. The Chinese Historical Review . 2012;12 :150-161.

Bol PK. On an infrastructure for historical spatial analysis. Perspectives on History . 2012;50 (7).

Bol PK. Spatializing History Notes & Slides for GIScience 2012 Keynote, in GIScience 2012. Columbus, OH ; 2012.

Guan WW, Bol PK. Embracing Geographic Analysis Beyond Geography – Harvard’s Center for Geographic Analysis Enters its 5th Year. International Journal of Applied Geospatial Research . 2012;3 (1) :63-71.

Guan WW, Bol PK, Lewis BG, Bertrand M, Berman ML, Blossom JC. WorldMap – A Geospatial Framework for Collaborative Research. Annals of GIS . 2012;18 (2) :121–134.

Bol PK. GIS, Prosopography, and History. Annals of GIS . 2012;18 (1) :3-15.
2011

Southall H, Manning P, Berman M, Gerring J, Bol P. Understanding Global Change: How Best to Organize Information?. 2011.

Bol PK. Review of The Troubled Empire: China in the Yuan and Ming Dynasties (Harvard university Press, 2010) by Timothy Brook . Journal of Song Yuan Studies . 2011;41 :405-410.

Bol PK. What do Humanists Want? What do Humanists Need? What Might Humanists Get. In: Geohumanities: Art, History, Text at the Edge of Place. London and New York: Routledge ; 2011. pp. 296-308.

Deng K, Ji C, Bol PK, Liu JS. Statistical Models for Mining Chinese Text. In: Frontiers of Mathematical Sciences. Boston: International Press of Boston ; 2011. pp. 263-275.

Bol PK. Bottom-up and Top-down: On Local history in Chinese History. Transactions of the International Conference on Eastern Studies. 2011;56 :111-113.

2010

Bol P. 地域史の勃興: 南宋、元代のと婺州歷史、地理學文化. In: 中国学(シノロジー)のパースペクティブ : 科挙・出版史・ジェンダー. Tokyo: Benseishuppan ; 2010. pp. 237-286.

2009

Bol PK. Geography and Culture: The Middle-Period Discourse on the Zhong guo - the Central Country. In: Ying-kuei H Space and Cultural Fields: Spatial Images, Practices and Social Production. Taibei: Center for Chinese Studies ; 2009. pp. 61-106.

Bol PK. Wang Anshi and the Zhouli. In: Elman BA, Kern M Statecraft and Classical Learning: The Rituals of Zhou in East Asian History. Leiden: Brill ; 2009. pp. 229-251.

Bol (包弼德) PK. 歷史上的理學 . Hangzhou: Zhejiang daxue chubanshe; 2009.
2008

Neo-Confucianism in History. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center-Harvard University Press; 2008.

Bol PK. Chungkuk chisikintŭlkwa chŏngch'esŏng: samunŭl t'onghae pon tangsong chisŏngsaŭi taepyŏnhwa피터 볼 저, 심의용 역, 중국지식인들과 정체성: 사문을 통해 본 당송 시대 지성사의 대변화, 서울, 북스토리. Seoul: Book Story; 2008.
2007

Bol PK. Lessons Learned in Creating the China Historical GIS Tsunetoshi M. Historical Maps and GIS. 2007 :47-58.

Bol PK. Creating a GIS for the History of China. In: Knowles AK, Hillier A Placing History: How Maps, Spatial Data, and GIS Are Changing Historical Scholarship. Redlands, CA: ESRI Press ; 2007. pp. 25-57.

Bol PK. When Antiquity Mattered. In: Kuhn D, Stahl H Perceptions of Antiquity in Chinese Civilization. Heidelberg: Edition Forum ; 2007. pp. 209-36.
2006

Bol PK, Guan W. Harvard Returns to Geography. ArcWatch http://www.esri.com/news/arcwatch [Internet]. 2006. Publisher's Version

Bol PK. Historical GIS and China. Past Place. 2006;114 :6-7.

Bol PK. Looking to Wang Shizhen: Hu Yinglin (1551-1602) and Late Ming Alternatives to Neo-Confucian Learning. Ming Studies. 2006;53 :99-137.

Bol PK. Chiikishi no bokkō: Nan Sō-Gendai no Bu-shū ni okeru rekishi, chirigaku to bunka 地域史の勃興: 南宋元代の婺州における歷史,地理學と文化. Higashi Ajiya kaiiki kōryūshi, Genchi chōsa kenkyū: Chiiki, kankyō, shinsei 東ァジァ 東海域交流史, 現地調查研究-地域. 環境, 心性. 2006 :125-55.

Bol PK. Looking to Wang Shizhen: Hu Yinglin (1551-1602) and Late Ming Alternatives to Neo-Confucian Learning. Ming Studies. 2006;53 :99-137.

Bol PK. Emperors Can Claim Antiquity Too: Emperorship and Autocracy under the New Policies. In: Ebrey PB, Bickford M Emperor Huizong and late Northern Song China : the politics of culture and the culture of politics. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Asia Center : Distributed by Harvard University Press ; 2006. pp. 173-205.

Bol (包弼德) PK. 地方史的兴起:宋元婺州的历史和文化. 历史地理. 2006 :432-52.

Bol (包弼德) PK. 论停滞与失败-思想意识形态与历史:两个初步的问题之一. 清华大学学报. 2006;2 :5-16.
2005

Bol PK. China Historical GIS. Historical Geography . 2005 :150-2.

Bol PK. Historical Geography or a Spatially-Enabled Historiography?: Reply to Ryavec. Inner Asia. 2005 :249-56.

Bol PK. Review of Ji Xiaobin, Politics and Conservatism in Northern Song China: The Career and Thought of Sima Guang (A.D. 1019-1086). Journal of Chinese Studies. 2005 :388-90.

Bol PK. Review of Tze-ki Hon, The Yijing and Chinese Politics: Classical Commentary and Literati Activism in the Northern Song Period, 960-1127. Études chinoises. 2005 :354-57.

Bol (包弼德) PK. 地域史と後帝政國について –金華の場合 (Local History and Later Imperial China: the Jinhua Case). Chugoku-shakai to bunka 中國-社會と文化. 2005 :364-89.

2004

Bol PK. Another Generation of General Education. In: Essays on General Education in Harvard College. Cambridge: Faculty of Arts and Sciences Harvard University ; 2004. pp. 1-6.

Bol PK. Local History and Family in Past and Present. In: Lee THC The New and the Multiple: Sung Senses of the Past. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press ; 2004. pp. 307-48.

Bol PK. On the Problem of Contextualizing Ideas: Reflections on Yu Yingshi’s Approach to the Study of Song Daoxue. Journal of Song Yuan Studies. 2004 :59-79.

Bol (包弼德) PK. Su Shi zuopin zai Nan Song Wuzhou yandu qingkuang kao 蘇軾作品在南宋婺州研讀情況考. Xin Song xue 新宋學. 2004;2 :292-308.

Bol (包弼德) PK. Difang chuantong de chongjian -- yi Jinhuafu wei li (1480-1758) 地方傳統的重建--以金華府為例 (1480-1758). In: Li Bozhong 李伯重, Zhou Shengchun 周生春 江南工業與地方文化. Beijing: Qinghua daxue chuban she ; 2004. pp. 247-86.

2003

Bol PK. The 'Localist Turn' and 'Local Identity' in Later Imperial China. Late Imperial China. 2003;24 :1-51.

Bol PK. Neo-Confucianism and Local Society, Twelfth to Sixteenth Century: A Case Study. In: Smith P, von Glahn R The Song-Yuan-Ming Transition in Chinese History. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center ; 2003. pp. 241-283.

Bol (包弼德) PK. 政府社會和國家--關於司馬光和王安石的政治觀點. In: Songdai sixiang 宋代思想史論 . Beijing: Shehui kexue yuan chuban she ; 2003. pp. 111-83.

Bol (包弼德) PK. 蘇軾與文. In: Songdai sixiang 宋代思想史論 . Beijing: Shehui kexue yuan chuban she ; 2003. pp. 184-230.

2002

Bol PK. Government, Family, and Later Imperial Culture. Sungkyun Journal of East Asian Studies. 2002;2 :173-190.

Bol PK. Reconceptualizing the Nation in Southern Song – Some Implications of Ye Shi’s Statecraft Learning. In: Huang K-wu Thought, Political Power, and Social Forces. Taibei: Institute of Modern History, Academia Sinica ; 2002. pp. 33-64.

Bol PK. Reconceptualizing the Nation in Southern Song - Some Implications of Ye Shi's Statecraft Learning. In: Huang K-wu Thought, Political Power, and Social Forces. Taibei: Institute of Modern History, Academia Sinica ; 2002. pp. 33-64.

2001

Bol PK. Review of Linda Walton, Academies and Society in Southern Song China. Journal of Song and Yuan Studies. 2001 :315-319.

Bol PK. The Rise of Local History: History, Geography, and Culture in Southern Song and Yuan Wuzhou. Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies. 2001;61 :37-76.

Bol PK. Whither the Emperor? Emperor Huizong, the New Policies, and the Tang-Song Transition. Journal of Song and Yuan Studies. 2001 :103-34.

2000

Bol PK. Perspective on Readings of the Yingying zhuan. In: Yu P, Bol PK, Owen S, Peterson WJ Ways with Words: Writing about Reading Texts from Early China. Stanford : Stanford University Press ; 2000. pp. 198-201.

Bol PK. Introduction: Reading Texts in the Chinese Humanities. In: Yu P, Bol PK, Owen S, Peterson WJ Ways with Words: Writing about Reading Texts from Early China. Stanford : Stanford University Press ; 2000. pp. 1-10.

Bol PK. There Has Never Been One Greater than Confucius. In: Yu P, Bol PK, Owen S, Peterson WJ Ways with Words: Writing about Reading Texts from Early China. Stanford : Stanford University Press ; 2000. pp. 49-54.

Yu P, Bol PK, Owen S, Peterson WJ. Ways with Words: Writing about Reading Texts from Early China. 2000.

Bol (包弼德) PK. Tang Song bian xing de fan si: yi si xiang de bian hua wei zhu 唐宋變型的反思:以思想的變化為主. Zhongguo xue shu 中國學術 . 2000;1 :63-87.

Bol (包弼德) PK. 斯文:唐宋思想的轉型. Jiangsu jiaoyu chubanshe; 2000.
1999

Bol (包弼德) PK. 程頤與道學文化的興起 . 國際漢學/International Sinology. 1999 :46-93.

Bol (包弼德) PK. Shier zhi shiliu shiji de wenhua, shehui ji lixue 十二至十六世紀的文化,社會及理學. Zhongguo wenzhe yanjiu tongxun中國文哲研究通訊. 1999 :89-103.
1998

Weller R, Bol PK. From Heaven and Earth to Nature: Chinese Concepts of the Environment and Their Influence on Policy Implementation. In: McElroy MB, Nielsen CP, Lydon P Energizing China: Reconciling Protection And Economic Growth. Cambridge: Harvard University Committee on the Environment ; 1998. pp. 473-502.

Bol PK. Center for the Study of Local History in Jinhua. Ming Studies. 1998 :5-12.
Pages

Bol PK. Reading Su Shi in Southern Song Wuzhou. East Asian Library Journal. 1998;8 :69-102.

1997

Bol PK. Neo-Confucianism and Chinese History. Studies in Chinese History/Chūgoku shigaku中國史學. 1997;6.

Bol PK. Zhang Ruyu, the Qunshu kaosuo, and Diversity in Intellectual Culture -- Evidence from Dongyang County in Wuzhou. In: Qinzhu Deng Guangming jiaoshou jiushi huadan lunwenji慶祝鄧廣銘教授九十華誕論文集. Shijiazhuang: Hebei jiaoyu chubanshe ; 1997. pp. 644-73.

Bol PK. Examinations and Orthodoxies: 1070 and 1313 Compared. In: Huters T, Wong BR, Yu P Culture and the State in Chinese History. Stanford: Stanford University Press ; 1997. pp. 29-57.

1996

Bol PK. Review of Chen, Jo-shui, Liu Tsung-yüan and Intellectual Change in T’ang China, 773-819. Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies. 1996.

Bol PK. Review of Thomas A. Wilson, Genealogy of the Way: The Construction and Uses of the Confucian Tradition in Late Imperial China. China Review International . 1996;3 :564-72.

Bol PK. Review of Genealogy of the Way: The Construction and Uses of the Confucian Tradition in Late Imperial China by Thomas A. Wilson. China Review International. 1996;3 :564-72.

Bol PK. Review of Genealogy of the Way: The Construction and Uses of the Confucian Tradition in Late Imperial China by Thomas A. Wilson. China Review International. 1996;3 :564-72.

Bol PK. 唐宋變遷の再考-最近のアメリカの宋史研究の最近の傾向について-. 史滴(Waseda University). 1996 :2-16.

Bol PK. Intellectual Culture in Wuzhou ca. 1200 -- Finding a Place for Pan Zimu and the Complete Source for Composition. In: Proceeding of the Second Symposium on Sung History. Taipei ; 1996. pp. 788-738.

1995

Bol PK. Chao Ping-wen (1159-11232): Foundations of Literati Learning. In: Tillman HC, West S China Under Jurchen Rule: Essays in Chin Intellectual and Cultural History. Albany: SUNY ; 1995. pp. 115-144.

Bol PK. A Literati Miscellany and Sung Intellectual History: The Case of Chang Lei's Ming-tao tsa-chih. Journal of Song Yuan Studies. 1995;25 :121-52.

Bol (包弼德) PK. 美國宋代研究的近況. 新史學. 1995;6 :185-205.

1994

Bol PK. Review of Hoyt C. Tillman, Confucian Discourse and Chu Hsi's Ascendancy. Journal of Sung Yuan Studies . 1994;24.

Bol PK. Review of Michael Nylan, The Shifting Center: The Original Great Plan and Later Readings. T'oung Pao. 1994;80 :172-75.

Bol PK. Cheng Yi as a Literatus. In: Peterson W, Yu-kung K, Plaks A The Power of Culture. Hong Kong: Chinese University of Hong Kong Press ; 1994.

Bol PK. The Examination System and Sung Literati Culture. In: Vandermeersch L La société civile face à l'État dans les traditions chinoise, japonaise, coréenne et vietnamienne. Paris: École française d' extréme-orient ; 1994. pp. 55-75.

Bol PK. The Examination System and Sung Literati Culture. In: Vandermeersch L La société civile face à l'État dans les traditions chinoise, japonaise, coréenne et vietnamienne. Paris: École française d' extréme-orient ; 1994. pp. 55-75.
1993

Bol PK. Review of Wm. Theodore de Bary, Learning for One's Self: Essays on the Individual in Neo-Confucian Thought. Philosophy East and West. 1993;43 :751-753.

Bol PK. Review of T. H. Barrett, Li Ao: Buddhist, Taoist, or Neo-Confucian?. CLEAR. 1993;15 :160-162.

Bol PK. Government, Society, and State: On the Political Visions of Ssu-ma Kuang (1019-1086) and Wang An-shih (1021-1086). In: Hymes R, Schirokauer C Ordering the World: Approaches to State and Society in Sung Dynasty China. Berkeley: University of California Press ; 1993. pp. 128-192.

1992

Bol PK. Rview of Daniel K. Gardner, Learning to be a Sage. Journal of Sung Yuan Studies. 1992.

Bol PK. "This Culture of Ours" -- Intellectual Transitions in T'ang and Sung China. Stanford: Stanford University Press; 1992.

1990

Bol PK. Guide to the Study of Sung History.; 1990.
Bol PK. The Examination System and the Shih. Asia Major, Third Series. 1990;3 :149-71.

Bol PK. The Sung Context: From Ou-yang Hsiu to Chu Hsi. In: and Kidder Smith, Jr. JAPBDWJ Sung Dynasty Uses of the I Ching. Princeton : Princeton University Press ; 1990.

Bol PK. The Examination System and the Shih. Asia Major, Third Series. 1990;3.

Bol PK. Su Shih and Culture. In: Smith, Jr. K, Bol PK, Adler JA, Wyatt DJ Sung Dynasty Uses of the I Ching. Princeton: Princeton University Press ; 1990.

1989

Bol PK. Review of David McMullen, State and Scholars in T'ang China . Journal of Asian Studies. 1989;48.

Bol PK. Chu Hsi's Redefinition of Literati Learning. In: de Bary WT, Chaffee J Neo-Confucian Education: The Formative Stage. Berkeley: University of California Press ; 1989. pp. 151-87.

1987

Bol PK. Review of Hok lam Chan, Legitimation in Imperial China: Discussions Under the Jurchen Chin Dynasty (1115-1234). Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies . 1987;47.

Bol PK. Seeking Common Ground: Han Literati Under Jurchen Rule. Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies. 1987;47 :461-538.Abstract

1986

Bol PK. Thoughts on Sung Literati Thought," on Hoyt C. Tillman, Utilitarian Confucianism. Bulletin of Sung and Yuan Studies. 1986 :88-97.

1983

Bol PK. Review of Brian Mcknight, Sung Tz'u, The Washing Away of Wrongs. Forensic Medicine in Thirteenth Century China. Journal of Asian Studies. 1983.

Fairbank Center for Chinese Studies