Now available in Chinese from City University of Hong Kong Press “中國36問—對一個崛起大國的洞察

“Many books offer information about China, but few make sense of what is truly at stake. The questions addressed in this unique volume provide a window onto the challenges China faces today and the uncertainties its meteoric ascent on the global horizon has provoked.

In only a few decades, the most populous country on Earth has moved from relative isolation to center stage. Thirty of the world’s leading China experts—all affiliates of the renowned Fairbank Center for Chinese Studies at Harvard University—answer key questions about where this new superpower is headed and what makes its people and their leaders tick. They distill a lifetime of cutting-edge scholarship into short, accessible essays about Chinese identity, culture, environment, society, history, or policy.

Can China’s economic growth continue apace? Can China embrace the sacrifices required for a clean environment? Will Taiwan reunite with the mainland? How do the Chinese people understand their position in today’s global marketplace? How do historical setbacks and traditional values inform China’s domestic and foreign policy? Some of the essays address issues of importance to China internally, revolving around the Communist Party’s legitimacy, the end of the one-child policy, and ethnic tensions. Others focus on China’s relationship with other nations, particularly the United States. If America pulls back from its Asian commitments, how will China assert its growing strength in the Pacific region?

China has already captured the world’s attention. The China Questions takes us behind media images and popular perceptions to provide insight on fundamental issues.”

Description by Harvard University Press, 2018



Listen to editors Jennifer Rudolph and Michael Szonyi on opens in a new windowSupChina’s Sinica Podcast, talking to hosts Kaiser Kuo and Jeremy Goldkorn about “The China Questions” on opens in a new windowiTunes or opens in a new windowSticher.



The China Questions is packed with erudite yet accessible commentaries on issues ranging from literature to ethnic diversity. The topical reach is impressive; readers will come away with information concerning novel ways of thinking about everything from early philosophical traditions to modern visions of utopia and dystopia, from international relations to struggles for political legitimacy.”
Jeffrey Wasserstrom, author of China in the 21st Century

“This book cuts through the cacophony of information, misinformation, and nonsense on China that circulates in our modern world to give us reliable answers to crucial questions about one of the world’s most important nations. Written by a who’s-who of experts on a variety of topics, it’s also a pleasure to read. With stylish essays on everything from elite politics to the classical Chinese novel, it should be on the shelf of anyone seeking to understand this fast-rising superpower.”
Ian Johnson, author of The Souls of China

“Rudolph and Szonyi, both associated with Harvard’s Fairbank Center for Chinese Studies, bring together 36 short, but collectively weighty, scholarly articles on contemporary China. The articles are grouped into six categories: China’s politics, foreign relations, economy, environment, society, and history and culture. This collection is impressive for its comprehensiveness, with contributors providing numerous pointed observations.”
Publisher’s Weekly, read the full review opens in a new windowhere


To purchase, please visit the opens in a new windowHarvard University Press website.

Have your own “China Question”? Email us at opens in a new windowchinaquestions@fas.harvard.educreate new email and we’ll pose your question about China to one of our faculty members featured in the book!

Introduction – opens in a new windowMichael Szonyi

1. Is the Chinese Communist Regime Legitimate? – opens in a new windowElizabeth J. Perry

2. Can Fighting Corruption Save the Party? – opens in a new windowJoseph Fewsmith

3. Does Mao Still Matter? – opens in a new windowRoderick MacFarquhar

4. What Is the Source of Ethnic Tension in China? – opens in a new windowMark Elliott

5. What Should We Know about Public Opinion in China? – opens in a new windowYa-Wen Lei

6. What Does Longevity Mean for Leadership in China? – opens in a new windowArunabh Ghosh

7. Can the Chinese Communist Party Learn from Chinese Emperors? – opens in a new windowYuhua Wang

8. Will China Lead Asia? – opens in a new windowOdd Arne Westad

9. How Strong Are China’s Armed Forces? – opens in a new windowAndrew S. Erickson

10. What Does the Rise of China Mean for the United States? – opens in a new windowRobert S. Ross

11. Is Chinese Exceptionalism Undermining China’s Foreign Policy Interests? – opens in a new windowAlastair Iain Johnston

12. (When) Will Taiwan Reunify with the Mainland? – opens in a new windowSteven M. Goldstein

13. Can China and Japan Ever Get Along? – opens in a new windowEzra F. Vogel

14. Can China’s High Growth Continue? – opens in a new windowRichard N. Cooper

15. Is the Chinese Economy Headed toward a Hard Landing? – opens in a new windowDwight H. Perkins

16. Will Urbanization Save the Chinese Economy or Destroy It? – opens in a new windowMeg Rithmire

17. Is China Keeping Its Promises on Trade? – opens in a new windowMark Wu

18. How Do China’s New Rich Give Back? – opens in a new windowTony Saich

19. What Can China Teach Us about Fighting Poverty?  – opens in a new windowNara Dillon

20. Can China Address Air Pollution and Climate Change? – opens in a new windowMichael B. McElroy

21. Is There Environmental Awareness in China? – opens in a new windowKaren Thornber

22. Why Does the End of the One-Child Policy Matter? – opens in a new windowSusan Greenhalgh

23. How Are China and Its Middle Class Handling Aging and Mental Health? – opens in a new windowArthur Kleinman

24. How Important Is Religion in China? – opens in a new windowJames Robson

25. Will There Be Another Dalai Lama? – opens in a new windowLeonard W. J. van der Kuijp

26. Does Law Matter in China? – opens in a new windowWilliam P. Alford

27. Why Do So Many Chinese Students Come to the United States? – opens in a new windowWilliam C. Kirby

28. Who Is Confucius in Today’s China? – opens in a new windowMichael Puett

29. Where Did the Silk Road Come From? – opens in a new windowRowan Flad

30. Why Do Intellectuals Matter to Chinese Politics? – opens in a new windowPeter K. Bol

31. Why Do Classic Chinese Novels Matter? – opens in a new windowWai-yee Li

32. How Have Chinese Writers Imagined China’s Future? – opens in a new windowDavid Der-wei Wang

33. Has Chinese Propaganda Won Hearts and Minds? – opens in a new windowJie Li

34. Why Is It Still So Hard to Talk about the Cultural Revolution? – opens in a new windowXiaofei Tian

35. What Is the Future of China’s Past? – opens in a new windowStephen Owen

36. How Has the Study of China Changed in the Last Sixty Years? – opens in a new windowPaul A. Cohen


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导论opens PDF file – Michael Szonyi  opens in a new window宋怡明

I. 政治
1. 中国共产党政权是否具有合法性?opens PDF file – Elizabeth J. Perry opens in a new window裴宜理

2. 反贪腐能否救党?opens PDF file – Joseph Fewsmith opens in a new window傅士卓

3. 毛泽东依然重要吗?- opens in a new window马若德 Roderick MacFarquhar

4. 中国民族关系紧张的根源是什么?- opens in a new window欧立德 Mark C. Elliott

5. 关于中国的舆论,我们应了解什么? – opens in a new window雷雅雯 Ya-Wen Lei

6. 长寿对中国领导层意味着什么?- opens in a new window郭旭光 Arunabh Ghosh

7. 中国共产党能吸取中国皇帝的教训吗?- opens in a new window王裕华 Yuhua Wang

II. 国际关系
8. 中国会领导亚洲吗?- opens in a new window文安立 Odd Arne Westad

9. 中国的军事力量有多强大?- opens in a new window艾立信 Andrew S. Erickson

10. 中国的崛起对美国意味着什么?- opens in a new window陆伯彬 Robert S. Ross

11. 中国例外论是否在损害中国外交政策的利益?- opens in a new window江忆恩 Alastair Iain Johnston

12. 台湾(何时)会与大陆统一?- opens in a new window戈迪温 Steven M. Goldstein

13. 中国和日本能和睦相处吗?- opens in a new window傅高义 Ezra F. Vogel

III. 经济
14. 中国的高增长能够持续吗?- opens in a new window理查德•库珀 Richard N. Cooper

15. 中国经济在走向硬着陆吗?- opens in a new window德怀特•珀金斯 Dwight H. Perkins

16. 城市化将会挽救还是摧毁中国经济?- opens in a new window任美格 Meg Rithmire

17. 中国有没有履行其贸易承诺?- opens in a new window伍人英 Mark Wu

18. 中国的新富阶层如何回报社会?- opens in a new window托尼•赛奇 Tony Saich

19. 关于战胜贫困,中国能给我们哪些启示?- opens in a new window温奈良 Nara Dillon

IV. 环境
20. 中国能解决空气污染与气候变化问题吗?- opens in a new window迈克尔•迈克艾罗伊 Michael B. McElroy

21. 中国有环境保护的意识吗?- opens in a new window唐丽园 Karen Thornber

V. 社会
22. 一孩政策的终结何以关系重大?- opens in a new window葛苏珊 Susan Greenhalgh

23. 中国及其中产阶级如何应对人口老化和精神健康的问题?- opens in a new window凯博文 Arthur Kleinman

24. 宗教在中国有多重要?- opens in a new window罗柏松 James Robson

25. 还会有下一任达赖喇嘛吗?- opens in a new window范德康 Leonard W. J. van der Kuijp

26. 法律在中国是否重要?- opens in a new window安守廉 William P. Alford

27. 为什么会有那么多中国学生来到美国?- opens in a new window柯伟林 William C. Kirby

VI. 历史和文化
28. 谁是今天中国的孔子?- opens in a new window普鸣 Michael Puett

29. 丝绸之路从哪里来?- opens in a new window傅罗文 Rowan Flad

30. 为什么知识分子对中国政治很重要?- opens in a new window包弼德 Peter K. Bol

31. 中国古典小说为什么重要?- opens in a new window李惠仪 Wai-yee Li

32. 中国作家们如何想象中国的未来? – opens in a new window王德威 David Der-wei Wang

33. 中国的宣传是否收服得到人心?- opens in a new window李洁 Jie Li

34. 为什么谈论“文革”仍如此困难?- opens in a new window田晓菲 Xiaofei Tian

35. 中国“过去”的未来在哪里?- opens in a new window宇文所安 Stephen Owen

36. 中国研究在过去六十年间发生怎样的变化?- opens in a new window柯文 Paul A. Cohen

1. Is the Chinese Communist Regime Legitimate? [Elizabeth J. Perry]

  • Benjamin Carlson, “The Seven Things You Can’t Talk about in China,” Toronto Star (July 1, 2013).
  • Elizabeth J. Perry, “Chinese Conceptions of ‘Rights’: From Mencius to Mao – and Now,” Perspectives on Politics (March 2008), vol. 6, no. 1: 37-50.
  • Elizabeth J. Perry, “Reclaiming the Chinese Revolution,” Journal of Asian Studies, vol. 67, no. 4 (November 2008): 1147-1164.
  • opens in a new window; Lotus Yang Ruan, “The Chinese Communist Party and Legitimacy,” The Diplomat (September 30, 2015)
  • Wenfang Tang, Populist Authoritarianism: Chinese Political Culture and Regime Sustainability (New York: Oxford University Press, 2016): 159.
  • Frederick C. Teiwes, Leadership, Legitimacy and Conflict in China: From a Charismatic Mao to the Politics of Succession (London: MacMillan, 1984).
  • Max Weber, Economy and Society, Guenther Roth and Claus Wittich, eds. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978): 212-245.
  • Lanxin Xiang, CHINA’S LEGITIMACY CRISIS (Rowman and Littlefield, 2017)
  • Dingxin Zhao, “The Mandate of Heaven and Performance Legitimacy in Historical and Contemporary China,” American Behavioral Scientist, vol. 53, no. 3 (November 2009): 416-433; Yuchao Zhu, “Performance Legitimacy and China’s Political Adaptation Strategy,” Journal of Chinese Political Science, no. 16 (2011): 123-140.

2. Can Fighting Corruption Save the Party? [Joseph Fewsmith]

  • Joseph Fewsmith, “Debating Constitutional Government,” China Leadership Monitor, no. 42 (fall 2013), available at opens in a new window
  • Joseph Fewsmith, “Mao’s Shadow,” China Leadership Monitor, No. 43 (spring 2014), available at opens in a new window
  • Angang Hu, “Corruption and Anti-Corruption Strategies in China,” presented at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, February 13, 2001, available at
  • Fu Hualing and Richard Cullen, “Weiquan (Rights Protection) Lawyering in an Authoritarian State: Building a Culture of Public-Interest Lawyering,” The China Journal, Vo. 59 (Jan. 2008): 111-127.
  • Andrew Jacobs, Javier C. Hernandez and Chris Buckley, “Behind Blast, Shortcuts and Lax Rules,” The New York Times, August 31, 2015; and Chris Buckley and Austin Ramzy, “Migrant Workers in Shenzhen Bear the Brunt of Landslide,” The New York Times, December 24, 2015.
  • Xiaobo Lü, Cadres and Corruption: The Organizational Involution of the Chinese Communist Party.  Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2000.
  • Minxin Pei estimated that the odds of a corrupt official being caught was less than 3 percent. See Minxin Pei, “Corruption in China: How Bad Is It?” presented at the Carnegie Endowment of International Peace, November 20, 2007, available at
  • Xinmin Pei, China’s Crony Capitalism: The Dynamics of Regime Decay. Cambridge, MA.: Harvard University Press, 2016.
  • Xi Jinping, Yanming dangde jilu he guiju lunshu zhaibian (Clarify the Party’s Discipline and Rules: Excerpts of Discussions) (Beijing: Zhongyang wenxian chubanshe, 2016), p. 28.

3. Does Mao Still Matter? [Roderick MacFarquhar]

  • Timothy Cheek, A critical introduction to Mao
  • MacFarquhar & Schoenhals, Mao’s Last Revolution
  • Pantsov and Levine, Mao: The Real Story
  • Stuart Schram, Mao Tse-tung (sic)
  • [Stuart Schram, Mao’s Road to Power (multiple volumes of Mao’s pre-revolutionary speeches and writings)]

4. What Is the Source of Ethnic Tension in China? [Mark Elliott]

  • Mark Elliott.  “The Case of the Missing Indigene: Debate over the ‘Second-Generation’ Ethnic Policy.”  The China Journal 73 (January 2015): 1–28.
  • James Leibold.  Ethnic Policy in China: Is Reform Inevitable? (Honolulu: East West Center, 2013).
  • James Leibold. Reconfiguring Chinese Nationalism: How the Qing Frontier and its Indigenes Became Chinese.  New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.
  • Xiaoyuan Liu.  Frontier Passages: Ethnopolitics and the Rise of Chinese Communism, 1921-1945. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2003.
  • Rong Ma. “Reflections on the Debate on China’s Ethnic Policy: My Reform Proposals and their Critics.” Asian Ethnicity (2014): 1–10.
  • Barry Sautman. “Paved with Good Intentions: Proposals to Curb Minority Rights and their Consequences for China.” Modern China 38:1 (2012): 10–39.
  • Barry Sautman. “Paved with Good Intentions: Proposals to Curb Minority Rights and their Consequences for China.” Modern China 38:1 (2012): 10–39.

5. What Should We Know about Public Opinion in China? [Ya-Wen Lei]

  • Lei, Ya-Wen. 2017. The Contentious Public Sphere: Law, Media and Authoritarian Rule in China. Princeton, New Jersey : Princeton University Press.

6. What Does Longevity Mean for Leadership in China? [Arunabh Ghosh]

7. Can the Chinese Communist Party Learn from Chinese Emperors? [Yuhua Wang]

  • Fukuyama, Francis. The end of history and the last man. Simon and Schuster, 2006.
  • Tullock, Gordon. Autocracy. Springer Science & Business Media, 2012.
  • Zizhi Tongjian (Comprehensive Mirror in Aid of Governance), which was edited by Sima Guang, an intellectual and politician in the Northern Song Dynasty, and published in 1084. It is a 294-volume.

8. Will China Lead Asia? [Odd Arne Westad]

9. How Strong Are China’s Armed Forces? [Andrew S. Erickson]

10. What Does the Rise of China Mean for the United States? [Robert S. Ross]

  • Robert J. Art, “The United States, East Asia, and the Rise of China:  Implications for the Long Haul,” in Political Science Quarterly, vol. 125, no. 3 (Fall 2010)
  • Robert Ross, “The Revival of Geopolitics in East Asia: Why and How?,” Global Asia,  vol. 9, no. 3 (fall 2014)
  • Robert S. Ross, “The Rise of the Chinese Navy: From Regional Naval Power to Global Naval Power?,” in Avery Goldstein and Jacques deLisle, eds., A Changing China in a Changing World (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 2017).

11. Is Chinese Exceptionalism Undermining China’s Foreign Policy Interests? [Alastair Iain Johnston]

  • Abdelal, Rawi, Yoshiko Herrera, Alastair Iain Johnston and Rose McDermott. 2006. Identity as a Variable. Perspectives on Politics 4(4): 695–711.
  • Akerlof, George A. and Rachel E. Kranton. 2010. Identity Economics: How Our Identities Shape Our Work, Wages, and Well-Being. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Altemeyer, Bob. 1988. Enemies of Freedom: Understanding Right-wing Authoritarianism. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers
  • Aydin, Nilufer, Joachim I. Krueger, Dieter Frey, Andreas Kastenmuller and Peter Fischer. 2014. Social exclusion and xenophobia: Intolerant attitudes toward ethnic and religious minorities. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations. 17(3)  pp. 371–387
  • Branscombe, Nyla R. and Daniel L. Wann. 1994. Collective self-esteem consequences of outgroup derogation when a valued social identity is on trial. European Journal of Social Psychology, Vol. 24, 641-657.
  • Chen, Yan and Sherry Xin Li. 2009. Group Identity and Social Preferences. American Economic Review. 99(1): 431–457.
  • Cikara, Mina, Emile Bruneau, Jay.J. Van Bavel, and Rebecca Saxe 2014 Their pain gives us pleasure: How intergroup dynamics shape empathic failures and counter-empathic responses. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 55:110125.
  • Cikara, Mina, Adrianna C. Jenkins, Nicholas Dufour, and Rebecca Saxe. 2014. Reduced self-referential neural response during intergroup competition predicts competitor harm. NeuroImage 96: 3643.
  • Cikara, Mina and Jay J. Van Bavel (2014), “The Neuroscience of Intergroup Relations: An Integrative Review,” Perspectives on Psychological Science 9, no. 3, pp. 245–74
  • Coleman, Martin D. 2013. Emotion and the Ultimate Attribution Error. Current Psychology. 32(1): 71-81.
  • Duckitt, John, Claire Wagner,  Ilouize du Plessis, Ingrid Birum. 2002. “The Psychological Bases of Ideology and Prejudice: Testing a Dual Process Model”.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83(1): 75–93.
  • Duckitt, John, Jane Callaghan and Claire Wagner. 2005. Group Identification and Outgroup Attitudes in Four South African Ethnic Groups: A Multidimensional Approach. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 31(5): 633-646.
  • Gonzalez, Karina Velasco, Maykel Verkuyten, Jeroen Weesie and Edwin Poppe. 2008 Prejudice towards Muslims in The Netherlands: Testing integrated threat theory. British Journal of Social Psychology 47: 667–685.
  • Gries, Peter Hays, Qingmin Zhang, H. Michael Crowson, and Huajian Cai. 2011. Patriotism, Nationalism, and China’s U.S. Policy: Structures and Consequences of Chinese National Identity. The China Quarterly. 205:1-17.
  • Gutsell, Jennifer N. and Michael Inzlicht. 2013. Using EEG Mu-suppression to Explore Group Biases in Motor Resonance. In Belle Derks, Daan Scheepers, and Naomi Ellemers eds., Neuroscience of Prejudice and Intergroup Relations New York, Psychology Press: 279
  • Halevy, Nir, Eileen Y. Chou, Taya R. Cohen, and Gary Bornstein. 2010. Relative deprivation and intergroup competition. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations. 13(6):685-700.
  • Hatemi, Peter K., Rose McDermott, Lindon J. Eaves, Kenneth S. Kendler, and Michael C. Neale. 2013. Fear as a Disposition and an Emotional State: A Genetic and Environmental Approach to Out-Group Political Preferences. American Journal of Political Science, 57(2): 279–293
  • Hemmer, Christopher, and Peter Katzenstein. 2002. Why Is There No NATO in Asia? Collective Identity, Regionalism and the Origins of Multilateralism. International Organization 56(3): 575-607.
  • Hewstone, Miles. 1990. The 'ultimate attribution error'? A review of the literature on intergroup causal attribution. European Journal of Social Psychology. 20: 311- 335.
  • Hui, Victoria Tin-bor, War and State Formation in Ancient China and Early Modern Europe. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2005)
  • Hymans, Jacques. 2002. Applying Social Identity Theory to the Study of International Politics: A Caution and an Agenda. Paper presented at 43rd annual meeting of the International Studies Association, New Orleans, Louisiana, March 24-27.
  • Johnson, Megan K. , Wade C. Rowatt, and Jordan P. LaBouff. 2012. Religiosity and Prejudice Revisited: In-Group Favoritism, Out-Group Derogation, or Both? Psychology of Religion and Spirituality 4(2) pp. 154–168
  • Johnston, Alastair Iain, 1995 Cultural Realism: Strategic Culture and Grand Strategy in Chinese History. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Johnston, Alastair Iain, 2015. The Tea Party and China Policy. In Alastair Iain Johnston and Shen Mingming eds., Perception and Misperception in American and Chinese Views of the Other. Washington DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
  • Kinder, Donald R. and Cindy D. Kam, 2010 Us against Them: Ethnocentric Foundations of American Opinion. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 2010.
  • Klor, Esteban F, and Moses Shayo, 2010. Social identity and preferences over redistribution. Journal of Public Economics. 94(3/4): 269–278
  • Li Hong, 2014. 李红, “和合”理念:江泽民外交思想的重要源泉 《中国党政干部论坛》(Feb 29, 2012) opens in a new window
  • Mansfield, Edward D.  and Diana C. Mutz. 2009. Support for Free Trade: Self-Interest, Sociotropic Politics, and Out-Group Anxiety. International Organization 63(3): 425–457.
  • Mercer, Jonathan. 1995. Anarchy and Identity. International Organization. 49(2):229-252
  • Molenberghs, Pascal. 2013. The neuroscience of in-group bias. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. 37: 1530–1536.
  • Oore, Debra Gilin, Annette Gagnon, and David Bourgeois. 2013. When White Feels Right: The Effects of In-Group Affect and Race of Partner on Negotiation Performance. Negotiation and Conflict Management Research. 6(2): 94–113.
  • Parker, Michael T., and Ronnie Janoff-Bulman. 2013. “Lessons from Morality-Based Social Identity: The Power of Outgroup ‘‘Hate,’’ Not Just Ingroup ‘‘Love’’”. Social Justice Research. 26:81–96.
  • Rotella, Katie N. and Jennifer A. Richeson. 2013. From Behavior to Brain and Back Again: Case Studies on the Use of fMRI to Investigate Intergroup Threat and Trust. In Belle Derks, Daan Scheepers, and Naomi Ellemers eds., Neuroscience of Prejudice and Intergroup Relations New York, Psychology Press: 334-354.
  • Rousseau, David. 2006. Identifying Threats and Threatening Identities: The Social Construction of Realism and Liberalism. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • Sides, John and Kimberly Gross. 2013. Stereotypes of Muslims and Support for the War on Terror. The Journal of Politics, 75(3): 583–598
  • Sniderman, Paul M., Louk Hagendoorn, and Marcus Prior. 2004. Predisposing Factors and Situational Triggers: Exclusionary Reactions to Immigrant Minorities. American Political Science Review 98(1): 35-49.
  • Tajfel, Henri. 1982. Social Identity and Intergroup Relations. Cambridge University Press.
  • Wang Yuan-kang. Harmony and War: Confucian Culture and Chinese Power Politics. (New York: Columbia University Press 2013)

12. (When) Will Taiwan Reunify with the Mainland? [Steven M. Goldstein]

  • Richard C. Bush, Uncharted Strait: The Future of China-Taiwan Relations (Brookings Institution Press, 2013)
  • Steven M. Goldstein, China and Taiwan (Polity Press, 2015)
  • Hsiao-ting Lin, Accidental State: Chiang Kai-shek, the United States, and the Making of Taiwan (Harvard University Press, 2013)
  • Shelley Rigger, Why Taiwan Matters: Small Island, Global Powerhouse (Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2013)
  • Alan D. Romberg, Rein in at the Brink of the Precipice: American Policy Toward    Taiwan and US-PRC Relations (The Henry L. Stimson Center, 2003)
  • Nancy Tucker, Strait Talk: United States-Taiwan Relations and the Crisis with China
  • Alan M. Wachman, Why Taiwan ?: Geostrategic Rationales for China’s Territorial Integrity (Stanford University Press, 2007)

13. Can China and Japan Ever Get Along? [Ezra F. Vogel]

  • Benton, Gregor, New Fourth Army: Communist Resistance Along the Yangtze and the Huai, 1938-1841, University of California Press, 1999.
  • Brook, Timothy, Documents on the Rape of Nanking. The University of Michigan, 1999.
  • Brook, Timothy, Collaboration: Japanese Agents and Local Elites in Wartime China. Harvard University Press, 2005.
  • Coble, Parks M., Chinese Capitalists in Japan’s New Order: The Occupied Lower Yangzi, 1937-1945. University of California Press, 2003.
  • Embree, John F., Suye Mura: A Japanese Village. University of Chicago Press, 1939
  • Embree, John F., The Japanese Nation: A Social Survey. Farrar & Rinehart, 1945.
  • Fairbank, John K. and Albert Feuerworker, eds., The Cambridge History of China. Volume 13, Part 2. Chapters 10, 11, and 12. Cambridge University Press, 1986.
  • Feng Chongyi and David S. G. Goodman, North China at War: The Social Ecology of Revolution, 1937-1945. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2000.
  • Fogel, Joshua A., Nakae Ushikichi in China: The Mourning of Spirit. Harvard East Asian Monographs, 1989
  • Fogel, Joshua A., The Nanjing Massacre: In History and Historiography. U. of California Press, 2000.
  • Hata, Ikuhiko, Nankyo Jihen, (The Nanjing Incident). Chuo Koron, 1986.
  • Honda, Katsuichi, The Nanjing Massacre. M. E. Sharpe, 1999.
  • Hotta, Eri, Pan Asianism and Japan’s War, 1931-1945. Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.
  • Iriye, Akira, Power and Culture: The Japanese-American War, 1941-1945. Harvard University, 1981. Lary, Diana and Stephen MacKinnon, ed., Scars of War: The Impact of Warfare on Modern China. University of British Columbia Press, 2001.
  • McKinnon, Stephen R., Diana Lary, and Ezra F. Vogel, ed., China at War: Regions of China, 1937-45. Stanford University Press, 2007.
  • Mitter, Rana, Forgotten Ally: China’s World War II, 1937-1945. Houghton Mifflin, 2013.
  • Morley, James William, ed., The China Quagmire. The East Asian institute, Columbia University Press, 1983.
  • Okita, Saburo, Japan’s Challenging Years: Reflections on my Lifetime. Australia: George Allen & Unwin, 1983.
  • Peattie, Mark, Edward J. Drea and Hans van de Ven, The Battle for China: Essays on the Military History of the Sino-Japanese War of 1937-1945.
  • Rabe John, The Good Man of Nanking: The Diaries of John Rabe. Alfred A.Knopf, 1998.
  • Taylor, Jay, The Generalissimo: Chiang Kai-shek and the Struggle for Modern China. Harvard University Press, 2009.
  • Van de Ven, Hans, Diana Lary and Stephen R. MacKinnon, Negotiating China’s Destiny in World War II.  Stanford University Press, 2015.

  • Wakabayashi, Bob Tadashi, The Nanking Atrocity, 1937-38: Complicating the Picture. Berghahn Books, 2007.

14. Can China’s High Growth Continue? [Richard N. Cooper]

  • Chow, Gregory C., China’s Economic Transformation, Malden, MA:  Blackwell, 2002.
  • Gordon, Robert J., “The Demise of US Growth: Restatement, Rebuttal, and Refections,” NBER Working Paper 19895, 2014.
  • Lardy, Nicolas R., Markets Over Mao, Washington: Peterson Institute for International Economics, 2014.
  • Perkins, Dwight, East Asian Development, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013.
  • Riedel, James, Jing Jin, and Jian Gao, How China Grows, Princeton University Press, 2007.
  • Woo, Wing Thye, “China’s Economic Growth: Sources and Prospects,” in M. Fouquin and F. Lemoine, eds., The Chinese Economy, London: Economica, 1998.

15. Is the Chinese Economy Headed toward a Hard Landing? [Dwight H. Perkins]

  • Dwight H. Perkins, The Economic Transformation of China (World Scientific Press, 2015), Chapter 10 ("China's Investment and GDP Growth Boom: When and Jow Will It End?")

16. Will Urbanization Save the Chinese Economy or Destroy It? [Meg Rithmire]

  • Hsing, You-tien. The Great Urban Transformation. Oxford University Press. 2010.
  • Looney, Kristen. “China’s Campaign to Build a New Socialist Countryside: Village Modernization, Peasant Councils, and the Ganzhou Model of Rural Development.” China Quarterly. Vol. 224. 2015. Pp 909-932.
  • Rithmire, Meg. Land Bargains and Chinese Capitalism: The Politics of Property Rights under Reform. Cambridge University Press. 2015.
  • Xin Meng. “Harnessing China’s Untapped Labor Supply.” Paulson Policy Memorandum. Paulson Institute. February 2015. opens in a new window

17. Is China Keeping Its Promises on Trade? [Mark Wu]

  • Mark Wu, “The China, Inc. Challenge to Global Trade Governance,” Harvard International Law Journal 57 (2016): 261-324.
  • Timothy Webster, “Paper Compliance: How China Implements WTO Decisions,” Michigan Journal of International Law 35 (2013): 525-578.
  • Office of the United States Trade Representative, 2016 Report to Congress on China’s WTO Compliance.

18. How Do China’s New Rich Give Back? [Tony Saich]

  • Edward Cunningham, China’s Most Generous. Understanding China’s Philanthropic Landscape. This can be accessed at opens in a new window This website is updated regularly.
  • David S.G, Goodman, The New Rich in China. Future Rulers, present lives (Routledge, 2008)
  • Paula D. Johnson and Tony Saich, Values and Vision: Philanthropy in 21st Century China (Ash Center for Democratic Governance and Innovation, 2017).

19. What Can China Teach Us about Fighting Poverty? [Nara Dillon]

  • Leslie T. Chang, Factory Girls: From Village to City in a Changing China, Spiegel Grau, 2009.
  • Mun Young Cho, The Specter of the People: Urban Poverty in Northeast China, Cornell University Press, 2013.
  • Nara Dillon, Radical Inequalities: The Revolutionary Chinese Welfare State in Comparative Perspective, Harvard University Press, 2015.
  • Shi Li, Hiroshi Sato and Terry Sicular, eds. Rising Inequality in China: Challenges to a Harmonious Society, Cambridge University Press, 2013.
  • Lily Tsai, Accountability without Democracy: Solidary Groups and Public Goods Provision in Rural China, Cambridge University Press, 2007.
  • Martin Whyte, The Myth of the Social Volcano: Perceptions of Inequality and Distributive Justice in Contemporary China, Stanford University Press, 2010.

20. Can China Address Air Pollution and Climate Change? [Michael B. McElroy]

  • Energy and Climate: Vision for the Future 1st Edition, Oxford University Press, 2016.
  • Energy: Perspectives, Problems and Prospects. Oxford University Press, 2010.

21. Is There Environmental Awareness in China? [Karen Thornber]

  • Anderson, E. N. Caring for Place: Ecology, Ideology, and Emotion in Traditional Landscape Management. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press, 2014.
  • Duara, Prasenjit. The Crisis of Global Modernity: Asian Traditions and A Sustainable Future. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015.
  • Elvin, Mark. The Retreat of the Elephants: An Environmental History of China. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004.
  • Kahn, Matthew E. and Siqi Zheng. Blue Skies over Beijing: Economic Growth and the Environment in China. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2016.
  • Karlgren, Bernard. The Book of Odes: Chinese Text, Transcription and Translation. Stockholm: Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, 1974.
  • Lamont, H. G. “An Early Ninth Century Debate on Heaven: Liu Tsung-yüan’s T’ien shuo and Liu Yü-hsi’s T’ien lun,” in Asia Major 19:1 (1974), 37-85.
  • Mao, Yushi. “Evolution of Environmental Ethics: A Chinese Perspective,” in Frederick Ferre and Peter Hartell, eds., Ethics and Environmental Policy: Theory Meets Practice. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1994. 42-57.
  • Shapiro, Judith. Mao’s War Against Nature: Politics and the Environment in Revolutionary China. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
  • Smil, Vaclav. China’s Past, China’s Future: Energy, Food, Environment. New York: Routledge Curzon, 2004.
  • Thornber, Karen Laura. Ecoambiguity: Environmental Crises and East Asian Literatures. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2012.
  • Wang Taiyue. “Tongshan yin,” in Zhang Yingchang, ed., Qing shi duo. Beijing: Xinhua Shudian, 1960. 927-28.
  • Wildau, Gabriel. “Smog Film Captivates Chinese Internet,” Financial Times online (March 2, 2015).

22. Why Does the End of the One-Child Policy Matter? [Susan Greenhalgh]

  • Greenhalgh, Susan. 2010 Cultivating Global Citizens

23. How Are China and Its Middle Class Handling Aging and Mental Health? [Arthur Kleinman]

  • Huang, Hsuan-Ying. Psycho-boom: The Rise of Psychotherapy in Contemporary Urban China, 2013, PhD Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Harvard University, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.
  • Kaufman, Joan, Kleinman, Arthur, and Saich, Tony. AIDS and Social Policy in China. Harvard East Asian Monographs. Asia Public Policy Series. Cambridge, Mass., HIV/AIDS Public Policy Project, Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, 2006.
  • Kleinman, Arthur. Social Origins of Distress and Disease: Depression, Neurasthenia, and Pain in Modern China. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1986.
  • Kleinman, Arthur, Georgia Lockwood Estrin, Shamaila Usmani, Dan Chisholm, Patricio V. Marquez, Tim G. Evans, and Shekhar Saxena. “Time for mental health to come out of the shadows.” The Lancet, (2016) 387(10035):2274-2275; World Bank, “Out of the Shadows,” background paper, April 2016. Available at: opens in a new window
  • Kleinman, A. and Hongtu Chen. 2012. “Looking after the Elderly- Asia’s Next Big Challenge.” Asia Global Institute. Available at opens in a new window
  • Kleinman, Arthur., and Watson, James L. SARS in China : Prelude to Pandemic? Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2006.
  • Kleinman, Arthur, Yunxiang Yan, Jing Jun, Sing Lee, Everett Zhang, Pan Tianshu, Wu Fei, and Guo Jinhua. Deep China: The Moral Life of the Person: What Anthropology and Psychiatry Tell Us about China Today. University of California Press, 2011.
  • M. R. Phillips, J. Zhang, Q. Shi, Z. Song, Z. Ding, S. Pang, X. Li, Y. Zhang & A. Wang, “Prevalence, Treatment, and Associated Disability of Mental Disorders in Four Provinces in China During 2001-05: An Epidemiological Survey,” The Lancet Vol. 373 (June 13th, 2009), 2041-2053.
  • Ong, Ong, Aihwa, and Chen, Nancy N. Asian Biotech: Ethics and Communities of Fate. Experimental Futures. Durham [NC]: Duke University Press, 2010. Beck, Ulrich, and Ritter, Mark. Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity. Theory, Culture & Society. London; Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications, 1992.
  • Song, Priscilla. Biomedical Odysseys: Fetal Cell Experiments from Cyberspace to China. Princeton University Press. (in press).
  • Sung, Wen-Ching, Global Science: The Convergence of Biotechnology and Capitalism in China, 2006, PhD Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Harvard University.
  • Tucker, Joseph D, Cheng, Yu, Wong, Bonnie, Gong, Ni, Nie, Jing-Bao, Zhu, Wei, Mclaughlin, Megan M, Xie, Ruishi, Deng, Yinghui, Huang, Meijin, Wong, William C W, Lan, Ping, Liu, Huanliang, Miao, Wei, and Kleinman, Arthur. "Patient–physician Mistrust and Violence against Physicians in Guangdong Province, China: A Qualitative Study." BMJ Open 6 October 2015, Vol. 5(10).
  • Yan, Yunxiang. Private Life under Socialism: Love, Intimacy, and Family Change in a Chinese Village, 1949-1999. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2003
  • Yan, Yunxiang. The Individualization of Chinese Society. English ed. Monographs on Social Anthropology; No. 77. Oxford ; New York: Berg, 2009.
  • Yap, Mui Teng, Leng Leng Thang, and John W. Traphagan. "Introduction: Aging in Asia—perennial concerns on support and caring for the old." Journal of cross-cultural gerontology 20, no. 4 (2005): 257-267; Kobayashi, Keiichiro and Jun Kurihara. 2014. “In Search of Élan Vital for Japan: Aging and Directed Technological Change: Designing Optimum Gerontechnology as a Growth Engine.” Tokyo-Cambridge Gazette: Politico-Economic Commentaries No. 12.
  • Zhang, Zhang, Li, and Ong, Aihwa. Privatizing China: Socialism from Afar. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2008.

24. How Important Is Religion in China? [James Robson]

  • Yoshiko Ashiwa and David L. Wank, eds., Making Religion, Making the State: The Politics of Religion in Contemporary China (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2009)
  • Vincent Goossaert and David A. Palmer, The Religious Question in Modern China (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011)
  • Paul R. Katz, Religion in China and Its Modern Fate (MA: Brandeis University Press, 2014).
  • Daniel L. Overmyer, ed., Religion in China Today (Cambridge” Cambridge University Press, 2003)
  • David A. Palmer, Glenn Shive, and Philip Wickeri, eds., Chinese Religious Life (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011)

25. Will There Be Another Dalai Lama? [Leonard W. J. van der Kuijp]

  • The Dalai Lamas: a Visual History. Ed. M. Brauen. Chicago: Serindia, 2005.
  • P. Schwieger. The Dalai Lama and the Emperor of China. New York: Columbia University Press, 2015.
  • Ya Hanzhang. The Biographies of the Dalai Lamas. Tr. Wang Wenjiong. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 1991.

26. Does Law Matter in China? [William P. Alford]

  • Sida Liu and Terence Halliday, Criminal Defense in China:The Politics of Lawyers at Work. Cambridge University Press (2016).
  • Suli Zhu, Sending Law to the Countryside: Research on China's Basic-Level Judicial System. Springer (2016).
  • Qinfan Zhang,  The Constitution of China: A Contextual Analysis. Hart Publishing (2012).

27. Why Do So Many Chinese Students Come to the United States? [William C. Kirby]

28. Who Is Confucius in Today’s China? [Michael Puett]

  • Yu Dan. Confucius from the Heart: Ancient Wisdom for Today's World. (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2009.)
  • Ling Li. The Real Confucius Is Only Revealed by Stripping Away His Sagehood: Cross-Reading the Analects. (Beijing: Sanlian, 2008.)
  • John Makeham.  Lost Soul: "Confucianism" in Contemporary Chinese Academic Discourse.  (Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2008.)
  • John Makeham.  New Confucianism: A Critical Examination.  (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.)

29. Where Did the Silk Road Come From? [Rowan Flad]

  • Boivin, Nicole, Dorian Q. Fuller, and Alison Crowther. 2012. Old World globalization and the Columbian exchange: Comparison and contrast. World Archaeology 44(3), 452-469.
  • Jaffe, Yitzchak and Rowan Flad. (n.d.) Prehistoric globalizing processes in the Tao River Valley, Gansu, China? In Ancient Globalizations and people ‘without’ history, edited by Nicole Boivin and Michael Frachetti, pp. TBD. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Jones, Martin K., Harriet Hunt, Emma Lightfoot, Diane Lister, Xinyi Liu, and Giedre Motuzaite-Matuzeviciute. 2011. Food globalization in prehistory. World Archaeology 43(4), 665-675.

30. Why Do Intellectuals Matter to Chinese Politics? [Peter K. Bol]

  • Peter K. Bol. Neo-Confucianism in history. Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard University Asia Center, 2008
  • Sources of Chinese tradition, compiled by Wm. Theodore de Bary and Irene Bloom.
    New York : Columbia University Press, c1999-c2000.
  • Wang, Chaohua. One China, many paths. Ed. Wang, Chaohua. London ; New York: Verso, 2003. 9-46.

31. Why Do Classic Chinese Novels Matter? [Wai-yee Li]

  • Cao Xueqin and Gao E.  The Story of the Stone.  Volumes 1-3 translated by David Hawkes.  Volumes 4-5 translated by John Minford. 5 volumes.  Harmondsworth; New York: Penguin, 1973-86.
  • Hsia, C. T.  The Classic Chinese Novel: A Critical Introduction.  Shatin: Chinese University Press, 2015 (c 1968).
  • The Journey to the West.  Attributed to Wu Cheng-en.  Translated by Anthony C. Yu.  4 vols.  Chicago: Chicago University Press, 2012.
  • Li, Wai-yee.  Enchantment and Disenchantment: Love and Illusion in Chinese Literature.  Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993.
  • Li, Wai-yee.  “Full-length Vernacular Fiction.”  In Columbia History of Chinese Literature, edited by Victor Mair, pp. 620-658.  New York: Columbia University Press, 2001.
  • The Marshes of Mount Liang.  Attributed to Shi Nai-an and Luo Guanzhong.  Translated by John and Alex Dent-Young.  5 volumes.  Hong Kong: Chinese University Press, 2002.
  • Monkey.  Attributed to Wu Cheng-en.  Translated by Arthur Waley.  New York: Grove Press, 1958 (c 1943).
  • The Monkey and the Monk: A Revised Abridgement of the Journey to the West.  Translated by Anthony C. Yu.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006.
  • Outlaws of the Marsh.  Attributed to Shi Nai-an and Luo Guanzhong.  Translated by Sidney Shapiro.  Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1981 (c 1980).
  • Plaks, Andrew.  Ed. Chinese Narrative: Critical and Theoretical Essays.  Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977.
  • Plaks, Andrew.  The Four Masterworks of the Ming Novel.  Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987.
  • The Plum in the Golden Vase, or Chin P’ing Mei.  Translated by David Roy.  5 vols.  Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993-2013.
  • Three Kingdoms: A Historical Novel.  Attributed to Luo Guanzhong.  Translated by Moss Roberts.  Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999 (c 1991).  Also available in an abridged edition.
  • The Water Margin: Outlaws of the Marsh.  Attributed to Shi Nai-an.  Translated by J. H. Jackson.  North Clarendon, Vt.: Tuttle Pub., 2010.
  • Wu Jingzi.  The Scholars.  Translated by Yang Hsien-yi and Gladys Yang.  New York: Columbia University Press, 1992.
  • Yu, Anthony C.  Comparative Journeys: Essays on Literature and Religion East and West.  New York: Columbia University Press, 2009.
  • Yu, Anthony C.  Rereading the Stone: Desire and the Making of Fiction in Dream of the Red Chamber.  Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997.

32. How Have Chinese Writers Imagined China’s Future? [David Der-wei Wang]

  • Chan Koon-chung, The Fat Years, trans. Michael Duke (Doubleday, 2011)
  • Liu Cixin, The Three-Body Problem, trans. Ken Liu (Tor, 2016)
  • Lao She, The Philosophy of Old Zhang; The City of Cats (CNPeReading, 2012)

33. Has Chinese Propaganda Won Hearts and Minds? [Jie Li]

34. Why Is It Still So Hard to Talk about the Cultural Revolution? [Xiaofei Tian]

35. What Is the Future of China’s Past? [Stephen Owen]

36. How Has the Study of China Changed in the Last Sixty Years? [Paul A. Cohen]

  • Paul A. Cohen, Discovering History in China: American Historical Writing on the Recent Chinese Past (New York: Columbia University Press, 2010 [reissue with additional material of original 1984 edition])
  • Cohen, Paul A., Speaking to History: The Story of King Goujian in Twentieth-Century China (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009)
  • Joseph Esherick. The Origins of the Boxer Uprising [Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987
  • Christina K. Gilmartin, Gail Hershatter, Lisa Rofel, and Tyrene White, eds., Engendering China: Women, Culture, and the State (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1994)
  • David Johnson, Andrew J. Nathan, and Evelyn S. Rawski, eds., Popular Culture in Late Imperial China (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985)
  • Victor Lieberman, ed., Beyond Binary Histories: Re-imagining Eurasia to ca. 1830 (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1999),
Fairbank Center for Chinese Studies