Ezra F. Vogel

Former Henry Ford II Professor of the Social Sciences, Emeritus; former Director of the Fairbank Center 1973-1975, 1995-1999.

Ezra F. Vogel

Contents

Harvard University, Fairbank Center 60th Anniversary, October 8, 2016. Director Michael Szonyi (left) with former directors Ezra F. Vogel and Roderick MacFarquhar.

Biography

Ezra Vogel (1930-2020) (傅高义) was the Henry Ford II Professor of the Social Sciences at Harvard University, and the former director of the Fairbank Center.

Below is the Memorial Minute submitted by Mary C. Brinton and Martin K. Whyte on the announcement of Professor Vogel’s passing in 2020.

EZRA FEIVEL VOGEL

Harvard University Memorial Minute

Born: July 11, 1930 | Died: December 20, 2020

Ezra Vogel, Henry Ford II Professor of the Social Sciences, Emeritus, was one of America’s foremost authorities on East Asia. In a career spanning sixty years, he published groundbreaking works on Japan and China based upon detailed fieldwork, in-depth interviews, and documentary research.

Ezra grew up in the small town of Delaware, Ohio. His father ran a men’s and boys’ clothing store where Ezra often helped out; his mother was a homemaker and part-time bookkeeper at the store. He graduated from Ohio Wesleyan University, and, after serving in the army, he enrolled in the doctoral program in Social Relations at Harvard. He intended to become a family sociologist, completing his Ph.D. in 1958.

Ezra’s transformation into a researcher on Japan, and then on China, occurred as a result of chance conversations and a willingness to take risks (on the part of both Ezra and his wife, Suzanne, a trained social worker, whom he married in 1953). One of his doctoral advisors, Florence Kluckhohn, asked Ezra how he could generalize about American families if he did not have anything with which to compare them. Accepting this challenge, Ezra obtained funding to spend 1958–60 living in Tokyo, where he studied Japanese intensively and then conducted weekly interview sessions with six suburban families over the course of a year. The result was Japan’s New Middle Class (1963).

Ezra returned to a position at Yale. Opening the door to a second transformation, the anthropologist John Pelzel told Ezra that Harvard had received a grant to fund social scientists willing to retool for careers studying contemporary China. Despite having no background on China, Ezra was intrigued by this opportunity, and Pelzel arranged for him to meet with John King Fairbank. With Suzanne’s support, Ezra declared himself willing to transform into a specialist on China as well as Japan, provided he received a three-year post-doctoral fellowship to enable him to learn Chinese and begin research on contemporary China, to be followed by a teaching position in Social Relations. This package was quickly negotiated, and Ezra left Yale in 1961 and spent the remainder of his career at Harvard.

After Ezra’s intensive Chinese lessons, the Vogels spent 1963–64 in Hong Kong, where he conducted in-depth interviews with individuals who had once lived in the People’s Republic of China (PRC). These refugee accounts of daily life, augmented by Chinese press accounts, became Canton under Communism (1969), detailing how the Chinese Communist Party had transformed the institutions and social patterns of the province adjacent to Hong Kong.

Ezra’s subsequent research shifted between China and Japan. The difficulties American auto companies experienced in competing with Japanese carmakers stimulated Ezra to write his provocative book Japan as Number One (1979), which argued that, in certain respects, Japan was becoming a more successful modern industrial society than the U.S. By the 1980s, China’s nascent economic boom drew Ezra’s attention back to the PRC. In 1979, divorced from Suzanne, Ezra married Charlotte Ikels, an anthropologist of China, and in 1987 they spent seven months living in Guangzhou. That fieldwork became One Step Ahead in China: Guangdong under Reform (1989).

Ezra was concerned about America’s ability to compete on the world stage but was also deeply committed to cooperation between America and Japan and China. Comeback (1985) conveyed his ideas about how the U.S. could respond to the Japanese challenge. In 1993–95 he took leave to serve under the Clinton administration as the National Intelligence Council’s officer for East Asia, and over the years he published numerous essays analyzing America’s relations with rising East Asia.

Ezra continued writing and publishing after retiring from teaching in 2000. He spent more than ten years on research for his masterful book, Deng Xiaoping and the Transformation of China (2011), which described how Deng, a lifelong communist, was able to steer China into a successful post-socialist economic transition. His last book was China and Japan: Facing History (2019), a detailed historical investigation of the relations between the two great Asian powers over many centuries.

Ezra’s reputation for honest, knowledgeable, and sympathetic scholarship on the societies he studied earned him widespread praise and respect on both sides of the Pacific. The translation of Japan as Number One became a bestseller, and a Chinese translation of his book on Deng likewise became a bestseller in the PRC. He traveled to Japan at least once a year starting in 1958. After a first visit in 1973, he visited the PRC annually starting in 1980. He lectured frequently in Asia, giving public lectures and media interviews in fluent Chinese and Japanese.

In addition to his impressive scholarship, Ezra was an academic institution builder. At Harvard he directed the East Asian Research Center, the Council of East Asian Studies, the Fairbank Center for East Asian Research, the Asia Center, and the Program on U.S.-Japan Relations, and he was the founding chairman of the East Asian Studies concentration, continuing in that role from 1972 to 1991. He was also active in numerous external organizations devoted to Asian studies and U.S.-Asia relations.

Ezra earned multiple book awards, was given honorary degrees by eleven universities, and received Japan’s Order of the Sacred Treasure, Gold and Silver Star, in 1991 and the Centennial Medal of the Harvard Graduate School of Arts and Sciences in 2008.

None of these honors conveys the characteristics of Ezra Vogel that earned him such gratitude and affection from those whose lives he touched. His boundless optimism, utter lack of pretentiousness, generosity, intense curiosity, eagerness to exchange ideas, and devotion to promoting the careers of young scholars generated an extensive network of friends and admirers around the world. Ezra cherished these ties, maintaining contact partly through his annual Christmas card list, which eventually included more than 600 names. His was a full and rewarding life on a large stage for a modest youth from a small town in central Ohio.

Ezra is survived by his wife, Charlotte Ikels; children, David, Steven, and Eve; sister, Fay Vogel Bussgang; and five grandchildren.

Respectfully submitted,

Mary C. Brinton

Martin K. Whyte, Chair

Memorial Service

Memorial service for Ezra Vogel, September 24, 2022

Tribute Volume

Harvard East Asian Monographs 455

Remembering Ezra Vogel

Edited by Martin K. Whyte and Mary C. Brinton

This tribute volume compiles tributes and remembrances of Ezra F. Vogel’s life and works, available from Harvard University Press

Books

China and Japan: Facing History (Harvard University Press, 2019)

From the sixth century, when the Japanese adopted core elements of Chinese civilization, to the late twentieth century, when China looked to Japan for a path to capitalism, Ezra Vogel’s China and Japan examines key turning points in Sino–Japanese history. Throughout much of their past, the two countries maintained deep cultural ties, but China, with its great civilization and resources, had the upper hand. Japan’s success in modernizing in the nineteenth century and its victory in the 1895 Sino–Japanese War changed the dynamic, putting Japan in the dominant position. The bitter legacy of World War II has made cooperation difficult, despite efforts to promote trade and, more recently, tourism.

Vogel underscores the need for Japan to offer a thorough apology for the war, but he also urges China to recognize Japan as a potential vital partner in the region. He argues that for the sake of a stable world order, these two Asian giants must reset their relationship, starting with their common interests in environmental protection, disaster relief, global economic development, and scientific research.

Co-editor. The Park Chung Hee Era: The Transformation of South Korea (Harvard University Press, 2011)

This landmark volume examines South Korea’s era of development as a study in the complex politics of modernization. Drawing on an extraordinary range of sources in both English and Korean, these essays recover and contextualize many of the ambiguities in South Korea’s trajectory from poverty to a sustainable high rate of economic growth

Deng Xiaoping and the Transformation of China (Belknap Press, Harvard University Press, 2011)

Winner of the Lionel Gelber Prize | National Book Critics Circle Award Finalist | An Economist Best Book of the Year | A Financial Times Book of the Year | A Wall Street Journal Book of the Year | A Washington Post Book of the Year | A Bloomberg News Book of the Year | An Esquire China Book of the Year | A Gates Notes Top Read of the Year

Perhaps no one in the twentieth century had a greater long-term impact on world history than Deng Xiaoping. And no scholar of contemporary East Asian history and culture is better qualified than Ezra Vogel to disentangle the many contradictions embodied in the life and legacy of China’s boldest strategist.

Is Japan Still Number One? (Pelanduk Publications, 2000)

Vogel’s new book Is Japan Still Number One? appears at a time the Japanese are experiencing a crisis of faith. The nation has been written off as a viable economic force by many observers. Now Vogel provides lessons for Japan.

— Andreas Hippin, 2002 Review in H-Net

Editor. Living with China: U.S.-China relations in the Twenty-First Century (W. W. Norton & Co, 1997)

China will achieve a position of paramount importance in the world economy and the global political order in years to come; yet, the United States holds to no consistent policy with regard to this rising superpower. In the ideological void left by the end of the cold war, media images and expediency seem more likely to guide U.S. actions toward China than any clearly stated agenda.

At this critical point in the history of U.S.-China relations, Living with China offers an essential historical assessment composed by leading scholars and political analysts. From Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Tibet and the legacy of Tiananmen Square to trade, markets, and commercial diplomacy, these compelling essays address the complex web of issues that will shape future relations with China. This book offers important facts and insights for anyone interested in this most important and thorny of foreign policy issues.

The Four Little Dragons: The Spread of Industrialization in East Asia (Harvard University Press, 1991)

Ezra F. Vogel, one of the most widely read scholars on Asian affairs, provides a comprehensive explanation of East Asia’s industrial breakthrough. While others have attributed this success to tradition or to national economic policy, Vogel’s penetrating analysis illuminates how cultural background interacted with politics, strategy, and situational factors to ignite the greatest burst of sustained economic growth the world has yet seen.

Vogel describes how each of the four little dragons acquired the political stability needed to take advantage of the special opportunities available to would-be industrializers after World War II. He traces how each little dragon devised a structure and a strategy to hasten industrialization and how firms acquired the entrepreneurial skill, capital, and technology to produce internationally competitive goods. Vogel brings masterly insight to the underlying question of why Japan and the little dragons have been so extraordinarily successful in industrializing while other developing countries have not. No other work has pinpointed with such clarity how institutions and cultural practices rooted in the Confucian tradition were adapted to the needs of an industrial society, enabling East Asia to use its special situational advantages to respond to global opportunities.

This is a book that all scholars and lay readers with an interest in Asia will want to read and ponder.

Co-editor. Chinese Society on the Eve of Tiananmen: The Impact of Reform (Harvard University Press, 1990)

By the late 1970s, state communism was everywhere in retreat. First in Eastern Europe, then in China and the Soviet Union, party leaders were compelled to devise fundamental departures from the economic procedures and structures they had confidently installed at the outset of their revolutionary victories. Perhaps no country departed more rapidly from communist economic structures than China.

Within five years of Mao Zedong’s death, reformers led by Deng Xiaoping had dismantled the people’s communes and created a range of markets that established the institutional foundations for a new form of socialism. But, unlike the Soviets and Eastern Europeans, the Chinese reformers refused to consider parallel changes in political institutions. The demonstrations in Beijing in 1989 made it clear that post-Mao economic policies had created unavoidable political consequences for the society and its leaders. In individual case studies, the twelve contributors to this volume document the uneven decollectivization and decentralization of China’s economy in the post-Mao years and the great diversity of the social and political consequences. They deal with the effects of the more materialistic and individualistic reward system on both public and private life in the countryside and in urban settings and the new expectations that economic changes engendered.

One Step Ahead in China; Guangdong Under Reform (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1989)

One Step Ahead in China is a groundbreaking book, unique in its detailed coverage of Guangdong, the first socialist dragon to follow in the path of South Korea and Taiwan. Vogel paints a vivid portrait of Guangdong’s accelerated development and surveys the special economic zones, the Pearl Delta, Guangzhou, and the more remote areas, including Hainan. He looks at the entrepreneurs and the role of the pervasive Chinese tradition of guanxi, in which friends and relatives of officials receive preferential treatment. He examines the problems of opening up a socialist system and places Guangdong in the context of the newly developing economies of East Asia.

The Impact of Japan on a Changing World, (Chinese University Press, Hong Kong, 1987)

Ezra Vogel eloquently discusses the major factors that contribute to Japan’s success as well as its impact on other countries of the world.

Co-editor. Ideology and National Competitiveness: An Analysis of Nine Countries (Harvard Business School Press, 1986)

Ideology and National Competitiveness shows how and why ideology affects the power, role, and behavior of managers in nine countries: Japan, the United States, Taiwan, Korea, Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Brazil, and Mexico. Effective managers must understand the ideological implications of their actions to gain a competitive advantage. A research colloquium book

Coauthor. Nichibei Tagai ni Nani o Manabu ka? (Tokyo: Kodansha, 1986)

Japan As Number One (Harvard University Press, 1979; Harper & Row, 1979)

At the same time it was developing into the most competitive industrial power, Japan was solving problems that the United States now faces. Isn’t it about time, Ezra Vogel asks in this wide-ranging work, that we learn something from the competitor overtaking us?

Based on the most up-to-date sources, as well as extensive research and direct observation, Japan as Number One analyzes the island nation’s development into the world’s most effective industrial power, not only in terms of economic productivity but also in its ability to govern efficiently, to educate its citizens, to control crime, to alleviate energy shortages, and to lessen pollution. Ezra Vogel employs criteria that America has traditionally used to measure success in his thoughtful demonstration of how and why Japanese institutions have coped far more effectively than their American counterparts.

Vogel is the first scholar-observer to bring together the wide variety of materials that forcefully explain Japan’s successes. He describes how, both late in the nineteenth century and after World War II, Japan determined to overhaul and to modernize its institutions. With careful attention to its history and cultural roots, the nation consciously transformed itself sector by sector—in government, education, business, the military, and law—to catch up with and surpass the West. Japan also placed great value on technical expertise, but placed specialists within a group setting so that cohesiveness was not destroyed by modernization.

Japan as Number One suggests that an understanding of the recent Japanese experience in modifying its institutions and solving its postindustrial problems can assist America in rethinking its own societal difficulties. Vogel avoids simplifications and forced parallels in this comparative study and does not argue that Americans must become like the Japanese. Rather he proposes that we look to and learn from Japan as we once did from Europe.

Editor. Modern Japanese Organization and Decision-Making (University of California Press, Berkeley, 1975)

This book continues the first attempt of its kind to probe the major features of modern Japanese organization that have played such a critical role in Japan’s extraordinarily rapid economic development. The contributors include prominent academic business consultants such a Peter Drucker of the United states and Kazuo Noda of Japan; Japanese government officials such as Yoshihisa Ojimi, former Administrative Vice-Minister of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, and Taishiro Shirai, a member of the Central Labor Relations Commission; as well as outstanding Western experts on modern Japanese organization. The essays deal not only with Japanese government and business but also with the structures of a newspaper and a university and with the role of Japanese intellectuals in modern organization. The portrait of Japanese organization that emerges is much more dynamic and volatile than has been generally supposed. One finds business and government managers creatively using so-called “traditional practices” in novel ways and undertaking bold departures to achieve new purposes. The findings contradict the view that decision sten from below. Not only do executive have an important role in initiating action; but lower-level officials function within a context defined by their superiors. Far greater tensions and conflict exist within organizations than is commonly reported by outsiders, especially in institutions like the university where conflicts often paralyze the decision-making process. Similarly, there is far greater divergence of interest among different sectors of society than one might infer from the stereotypical view of “Japan, Inc.” And since the high level of consensus supporting the fundamental commitment to economic growth is now weakening increasing divergence may be anticipated in the future. This title is part of UC Press’s Voices Revived program, which commemorates University of California Press’s mission to seek out and cultivate the brightest minds and give them voice, reach, and impact. Drawing on a backlist dating to 1893, Voices Revived makes high-quality, peer-reviewed scholarship accessible once again using print-on-demand technology. This title was originally published in 1975.

Japan’s New Middle Class: The Salary Man and His Family in a Tokyo Suburb (University of California Press, Berkeley, 1963)

This classic study on the sociology of Japan remains the only in-depth treatment of the Japanese middle class. Now in a fiftieth-anniversary edition that includes a new foreword by William W. Kelly, this seminal work paints a rich and complex picture of the life of the salaryman and his family. 

In 1958, Suzanne and Ezra Vogel embedded themselves in a Tokyo suburb, living among and interviewing six middle-class families regularly for a year. Tracing the rapid postwar economic growth that led to hiring large numbers of workers who were provided lifelong employment, the authors show how this phenomenon led to a new social class—the salaried men and their families. It was a well-educated group that prepared their children rigorously for the same successful corporate or government jobs they held. Secure employment and a rising standard of living enabled this new middle class to set the dominant pattern of social life that influenced even those who could not share it, a pattern that remains fundamental to Japanese society today.

Canton Under Communism: Programs and Politics in a Provincial Capital, 1949-1968 (Harvard University Press, 1969)

Canton under Communism appeared in 1969 just as China was about to undertake a fundamental reorientation of external relations. It was the first broad-gauged regional study of Communist China. 

The upshot of this new research is that we can now speak with much more confidence about the consistency of basic approaches undertaken by the Chinese Communist government. In Kwangtung, regional resistances may have been stronger than in many other areas, and its closeness to Hong Kong and ties to overseas Chinese may have created special problems. Yet the basic approaches to establishing order, undertaking land reform, collectivization, and communization were the same everywhere. T h e large-scale cam- paigns—the Hundred Flowers, the Great Leap Forward, the Cul- tural Revolution—occurred throughout the country, and my descrip- tions of these campaigns in Kwangtung can now be read with some confidence as guides to how these campaigns developed all over Communist China. In short, this book is not simply about local policy but about national policy. 

Those preparing to visit Canton should not expect this book to substitute for a tourist guidebook. I hope, however, that it will pro- vide visitors and non-visitors, as the research has provided me, with a broader understanding of how Canton, Kwangtung, and the rest of China have become what they are today. 

— Ezra Vogel, Preface to the 1980 Edition

Co-editor. A Modern Introduction to the Family (The Free Press, 1960)

This is the first book to present a coherent and scientific approach to the sociology of the family. The editors have selected material “without regard to the boundaries of academic disciplines” (p. v). In-corporated into a single pattern are economic, anthropological, political, and psychiatric, as well as sociological, articles. The 51 pieces include materials from 17 different periodicals and 18 separate books. Traditional American sociology journals contribute but ten of the items; whereas nine stem from psychiatric periodicals. All but five come from publications since 1945. Diverse materials, not previously featured in a sociology text, and many not readily available otherwise, are utilized. Most of the writings are those of younger scholars, publishing since World War II. Compared with preceding collections, this volume manifests changes in research leadership and features a new generation of scholars. 

— Donald P. Irish, 1961 Review in Social Forces

Articles

Japan

“Japan As Number One, Revisited,” Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore, 1986.

“Dear America/Dear Japan,” Society, Vol.23, No.4, May/June 1986.

“Pax Nipponica?,” Foreign Affairs, No. 64405, Spring 1986.

“Observations on U.S.-Japan Relations: Unwritten Letters, Unspoken Words,” U.S.-Japan Relations: Learning from Competition, Annual Review, The Program on U.S.-Japan Relations, Center for International Affairs, Harvard University, 1985.

“Japan and the Information Revolution: National Transformation,” Journal of Telecommunication Networks Vol.3, No. 4, Winter 1984

“New Attitudes for a New Era,” U.S.-Japan Relations: New Attitudes for a New Era, Annual Review, The Program on U.S.-Japan Relations, Center for International Affairs, Harvard University, 1983-84.

“Japan’s Crusader Against Bureaucratic Waste,” Asia, V01.6, No.3, October 1983.

“American Perception of Japan: Growing Sense of Unfairness,” U.S.-Japan Relations in the 1980″s: Towards Burden Sharing, Annual Report, The Program on U.S.-Japan Relations, Center for International Affairs, Harvard University, 1981-2.

“The Challenge from Japan,” United States Senate, Committee on Finance, Subcommittee on International Trade, August 1980.

“American Perceptions of the United States-Japan Relationship,” Program on U.S. Japan Relations, Annual Report, Center for International Affairs, Harvard University, 1980-81.

“Nation Building in East Asia: Early Meiji (1868-1890) and Mao’s China (1949-1971),” in Albert M. Craig (ed.), Japan in Comparative Persyective, 1979.

“Guided Free Enterprise in Japan,” Harvard Business Review, Vol. 56, No. 3, May-June 1978.

Co-editor with Carmi Schooler, “In Memory of William Caudill,” Parts I and II, The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, Oct. and Nov. 1973.

“The Social Base of Japan’s Postwar Economic Growth,” United States International Economic Policy in an Interdependent World, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, July 1971.

“Whither Studies of Urban Japan,” in Edward Norbeck, ed., The Study. of Japan in the Behavioral Sciences, Rice University Press, Houston, 1970.

“Beyond Salary: Mamachi Revisited,” in The Japan Interpreter, Vol. 6, Summer 1970.

“Kinship Structure, Migration to the City, and Modernization,” in R.P. Dore, Aspects of Social Change in Modern Japan, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1967.

“Entrance Examinations and Emotional Disturbances in Japan’s ‘New Middle Class’,” Robert Smith and Richard Beardsley, eds., Japanese Culture, NY: Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research, 1962.

“The Go-Between in a Developing Society: The Case of the Japanese Marriage Arranger,” Human Organization, Vol. 20, No. 3, Fall 1961.

“The Democratization of Family Relations in Japanese Urban Society,” Asian Survey, Vol. 1, No.4, June 1961.

with Suzanne H. Vogel, “Family Security, Personal Immaturity, and Emotional Health in a Japanese Sample,” Marriage and Family Living, Vol. XXIII, No. 2, May 1961.

China

Ezra Vogel (2021) The Leadership of Xi Jinping: A Dengist Perspective, Journal of Contemporary China, 30:131, 693-696, DOI: 10.1080/10670564.2021.1884955

“China and the East Asian Modernization Model,” in Bruce L. Reynolds, ed., Chinese Economic Policy, Paragon House, New York, 1988

“The Unlikely Hero: The Social Role of the May Fourth Writers,” in Merle Goldman, ed., Modern Chinese  Literature in the May Fourth Era, Harvard University Press, 1977.

with Martin King Whyte and William L. Parish, Jr., “Social Structure of World Regions: Mainland China,” Annual Review of Sociology, 1977.

“The Chinese Model of Development,” in Mark G. Field, ed., Social Consequences of Modernization in Communist  Societies, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1976.

“Preserving Order in the Cities,” in John Lewis, ed., The City in Communist China, Stanford University Press, 1971.

“Politicized Bureaucracy:Communist China,” in Fred W. Riggs, ed., Frontiers of Development Administration, Duke University Press, 1970.

“Land Reform in Kwangtung 1951-1953: Central Control and Localism,” The China Quarterly, April-June 1969.

“The Structure of Conflict: China in 1967,” In Oksenberg, Riskin, Scalapino, and Vogel, Contemporary China: 1967 in Review, University of Michigan Center for Chinese Studies, Ann Arbor, Michigan 1969.

“Preliminary View of Family and Mental Health in Urban Communist China,” in William Caudill and Tsung-yi Lin, eds., Mental Health Research in Asia and the Pacific, East-West Center Press, 1969.

“Communist Chinese Society,” Asia, No. 11, Spring 1968.

“On Voluntarism,” in Donald W. Treadgold, ed., Soviet  and Chinese Communism, University of Washington Press, 1967.

with Doak Barnett, “A County,” in Barnett, ed., Cadres, Bureaucracy, and Political Power in Communist China, Columbia University Press, 1967.

“From Revolutionary to Semi-Bureaucrat: The ‘Regularization’ of Cadres,” The China Quarterly, January-March 1967.

“China’s New Society,” Diplomat, September 1966.

“Agriculture as the Foundation,” World Politics, Vol. XVII, No. 4, July 1966.

“From Friendship to Comradeship: The Change in Personal Relations in Communist China,” The China Quarterly, January-March 1965.

U.S.- East Asia

“The Advent of the Pacific Century,” Harvard International Review, Vol. VI, No. 5, March 1984.

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Ezra Vogel’s personal archive is held in the Harvard University Archives, the primary repository for Harvard’s institutional records and the personal archives of Harvard faculty. The Ezra Vogel personal archive documents the academic and professional career of Ezra Vogel as a scholar, writer, and teacher. More material will be added in the future and when complete, the collection will be a valuable resource for research in East Asian studies and the development of the discipline at Harvard, including the creation and growth of research centers including the Fairbank Center for Chinese Studies, the Program on U.S.-Japan Relations, and the Harvard University Asia Center. Please contact the Harvard University Archives for information on accessing the collection: archives_reference@harvard.edu.

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